Teak Wood Ecological Properties

Teak wood Ecological properties and distribution

Teak wood Ecological Properties and Distribution is widespread from India, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Indochina, to Java. Teak grows in deciduous forests which is drop their leaves in the dry season.

According to some botanists, Teak is a species native to Burma, which then spread to Peninsular India, Thailand, the Philippines, and Java. Other botanists consider teak to be a species native to Burma, India, Thailand and Laos.

Around 70% of the world’s teak needs are currently supplied by Burma. The remaining needs are supplied by India, Thailand, Java, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. However, the world’s only supply of natural teak forests comes from Burma. In Africa and the Caribbean are also widely kept.

Teak is the most widely distributed in Asia. In addition to the four countries of origin of teak and Indonesia, teak was developed as a plantation forest in Sri Lanka (since 1680), China (early 19th century), Bangladesh (1871), Vietnam (early 20th century), and Malaysia (1909).

A suitable climate is one that has a marked, but not too long, dry season, with rainfall between 1200–3000 mm per year and with moderately high light intensity throughout the year. The optimal altitude is between 0 – 700 m above sea level; although teak can grow up to 1300 m above sea level.

Teak stands often look like similar forests, namely forests that seem to consist of only one type of tree.

This can happen in monsoon climates that are so dry, land fires are easy and most tree species will die at that time. Not so with teak. Teak is a pioneer species that is fire resistant because of its thick bark. Moreover, teak fruit has a thick skin and a hard shell. To some extent, if burned, the teak seed institutions are not damaged. Damage to the teak seed shell actually makes it easier for teak shoots to come out when the rainy season arrives.

The broad leaves and teak branches that cover the soil decay slowly, making it difficult for other plants to grow. The fall also gets fuel that can start fires —which teak can but not many other types of trees. Thus, forest fires that are not too large actually result in the process of refining teak stands: teak seeds are encouraged to germinate, while other tree species die.

Suitable soil is slightly alkaline, with a pH between 6-8, nest (has good aeration), contains quite a lot of lime (Ca, calcium) and phosphorus (P). Teak is not waterlogged.

In the past, teak was considered a foreign species that was introduced (introduced) to Java; planted by Hindus thousands of years ago. According to T. Altona, the first teak planting was carried out by Hindus who came to Java. So impressed, teak was imported by Hindus or the Hindu country is the original place of teak. This opinion is reinforced by a botanist, Charceus who says that teak on the island of Java comes from India which was brought from 1500 BC to the 7th century AD.

This controversy was later answered by research on genetic markers using the isoenzyme technique / isozyme variation testing conducted by Kertadikara in 1994. The results showed that teak grown in Indonesia (Java) is a native species. Teak in Java has evolved from tens to hundreds of thousands of years ago (Mahfudz et al., t.t.). This teak undergoes a special adaptation mechanism according to climatic and edaphic conditions that developed tens to hundreds of thousands of years since the quarternary and pleistocene times in Southeast Asia. Because of the value of the wood, teak is now also being developed outside its natural distribution area. In tropical Africa, Central America, Australia, New Zealand, Pacific and Taiwan. Teak wood Ecological Properties and Distribution



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